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26 October 2005. A writes:

Here's an example of the Russian equivalent to the FRD-10 and FLR-9 arrays, the Krug circularly disposed antenna array, located on the outskirts of Moscow:

http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=55.718409,38.004284spn=0.005052,0.013739&t=k&hl=en

More information here:

http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/showflat.php?Cat=0Board=EarthMilitary&Number=160635fpart=1&PHPSESSID=

20 October 2005. A writes:

The antenna types, ring diameters, etc.on your "Eyeballing the Elmendorf Wullenweber" page actually pertain to the FRD-10 circularly disposed antenna array, not the FLR-9. This error crept into the FAS web page on the FLR-9 once upon a time and now propagates endlessly around the web. See the updated page here: http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/an-flr-9.htm

As the FAS page notes, a total of eight FLR-9 arrays were built:

* Augsburg, Germany

* Chicksands, United Kingdom

* Clark AFB, Philippines

* Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

* Karamursel, Turkey

* Misawa, Japan

* Ramasun, Thailand

* San Vito dei Normanni, Italy

The locations of all are shown in this thread on Google Earth:

http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/showflat.php?Cat=0Board=EarthMilitary&Number=113991fpart=1&PHPSESSID=

The Elmendorf and Misawa sites may still be operational, but the other sites have definitely been closed. The FLR-9 at Clark Field in the Philippines has the distinction of being the first, and presumably last, circularly disposed antenna array to be converted into a 35,000-seat fabric-covered amphitheatre. (You've got to see it to believe it.)

The FRD-10 arrays, also essentially all closed down (only the Canadian sites are still in operation), can be seen in this thread:

http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/showflat.php?Cat=0Board=EarthMilitary&Number=113957fpart=1&PHPSESSID=

_____

Further to Elmendorf, I've updated the Wikipedia article on the FLR-9 (first time I've tried to edit something there), so it now has what I believe to be accurate information. All the details on types and numbers of antennas, frequencies, ring diameters, range, etc. come from the FLR-9 manual cited in the article.

19 October 2005


Map from Mapquest.

Aerial photos from Terraserver-USA and  Seamless.usgs.gov

Google satellite image: http://maps.google.com/maps?q=anchorage,ak&ll=61.262476,-149.850426&spn=0.064843,0.250814&t=k&hl=en


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLR-9 [See correction above.]

FLR-9

The AN/FLR-9 is a type of very large circular "Wullenweber" antenna array, built at many locations during the cold war to gather signals for western signals intelligence (SIGINT). The world-wide network, known collectively as "Iron Horse", could eavesdrop on HF communications from almost anywhere on the planet.

Each antenna consisted of an inner ring 230 metres in diameter, consisting of 40 individual folded dipoles, and an outer ring about 260 metres in diameter consisting of 120 monopoles. The whole array is surrounded by a ground shield some 400 metres in diameter. The arrangement permits accurate direction finding of signals from up to 5000 km away.

FLR-9s were constructed at the following places:

* Augsburg, Germany

* Chicksands, England

* Clark AFB, Philippines

* Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

* Udorn (7th RRFS), Thailand

* Misawa AFB, Japan

* San Vito dei Normanni AS, Italy

Advances in technology have made Iron Horse obsolete. It is not known how many antennae remain in existence—some have already been demolished such as the one at Chicksands. In late 2001, the U.S. Air Force sought bids for the demolition of the site in Italy.


Eyeballing
the
Elmendorf
Wullenweber

Terraserver-USA Photo from USGS 2002.

Terraserver-USA Photo from USGS 2002.

USGS Photo 1996.

USGS Seamless Photo 2002.